Urinalysis is a routine take a look at that experiences the physical and chemical properties of urine. The urine analysis outcome showed that a complete of 89(forty.eight%) and 27(12.4%) ladies had acidic and alkaline urine respectively, the remaining 102(forty six.eight%) had regular urinee pH of 7. Protein was found among 43(19.7%) of the women while nitrite and blood had been detected in 14(6.four%) and 18(eight.3%) of them respectively (Desk 1).
Urine analysis can be used to detect a wide variety of disease states, notably problems of the urineary system. Sure calculi are shaped in overly-acid urine; some by overly alkaline urine. The urine usually accommodates a small amount of haemoglobin which does not show up on the take a look at, but the next quantity (haemoglobinuria) will show up as a positive take a look at consequence. Much like with haemoglobin, it's regular for urine to include a number of of those and the chemical test will present up destructive for a lower quantity.
The samples were collected between the hours of 10am to 12noon and had been transported immediately to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory, Ebonyi State College, Abakaliki for evaluation. It can be crucial that instructions are followed when gathering the pattern so that is not contaminated by way of menstrual blood or blood from haemorrhoids. In case you are menstruating or close to your period, or are taking any diuretics, it's best to inform your GP in case they wish to postpone obtaining a sample. It is usually finest to avoid strenuous train or eating any foods that might colour your urine before the test e.g. beetroots, blackberries or rhubarb.
You can be given directions as to what time of day to collect the sample (for example, first urination of the morning). A observe up urine culture take a look at needs to be performed the place dangerous bacteria is found. Microscopic examination of moist mount preparations of the urine samples was additionally done to detect pus cells and epithelial cells. Though routine urine evaluation is widespread, the results are important in management of solely certain ailments 2. However it is a very useful gizmo in establishing a baseline status in every affected person. The urine should be tested within just a few hours of assortment to keep away from skewing the outcomes for the pH take a look at, as urine will change into more alkaline as time passes. Table 1: Age-related prevalence of urine evaluation parameters among ladies attending out-patient clinics in Abakaliki, Nigeria.
Situations indicated by glucose within the urine are uncontrolled diabetes, kidney/hormonal disorders, liver disease. To be able to establish which substances are present, it is necessary to carry out further chemical and microscopic examinations on the urine. White blood cells in your urine can suggest that your kidneys/ureters or bladder or even other parts of your body have an an infection (viral or bacterial) and/or are infected. It's established that bacteruria with out pyuria could happen in diabetes, enteric fever, bacteria endocarditis, or when the urine contains many contaminating organisms 30.
Urine analysis speedy dipstick take a look at was performed using the Medi-Take a look at Combi 9 (MACHERY-NAGEL GmbH, Duren) strictly in accordance with procedure specified by producer. It is often advisable to acquire a mid-stream pattern in a clean, sterile pot (usually provided by your healthcare skilled). Detection of protein in the take a look at pad may also be an indicator of urinary tract infection/irritation or injury akin to damage to the prostate, bladder or urethra.
The presence of protein in the urine could also be a sign of glomerular disease and will develop into a protein dropping nephropathy 25. However, a weakly constructive test for urinary protein in a symptomless lady is usually attributable to contamination of the urine from the perineum 29. It is important that menstruation be at all times excluded as a reason for obvious haematuria and proteinuria.
Regular urine contains a spread of different crystals similar to calcium oxalates, calcium carbonate, crystalline uric acid, amorphous urate which are formed when waste chemical substances bind together. The chemical examination is often carried out in the laboratory utilizing check strips with rows of test pads called reagent strips. That is to keep away from the underestimation or overestimation of irregular urine analysis and the attendant consequences.
On this research a high share (40.eight%) of the women had acidic urinee, which may indicate a high protein weight-reduction plan, acidosis, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, and renal tubular acidosis 25. About 12.four% of the women screened had alkaline urinee which is likely to be an indication of urinary tract an infection 25. These findings display a clear want for further affected person analysis.
Protein Urine Examination
4/ 5Oleh Shiva Rose Marie